Plain X is Y

Ending a sentence with だ, and the difference between だ and です.

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Outline

KanjiVocabularyPlain X is Y

Kanji

Now

Heaven, Sky, Imperial

Quiet

Rain

Exist, Occur, Have, Happen

Name, Noted, Reputation

Vocabulary

~さん

Mr., Ms., Miss., Mrs.

Day, Sun

今日

Today

天気

Weather

静か

Quiet, Calm, Silent

Rain

有名

Famous

Plain X is Y

The particle can be used to form the X is Y sentence structure just like です from Beginner Lesson 1. There are a few differences between the two such as is less formal than です and cannot come after い-adjectives. Here are some examples of in use:

  • 今日きょうしずかなだ。
  • It's a quiet day today.
  • アリスさんは有名ゆうめいだ。
  • Ms. Alice is famous.

As you can see above, can be used with な-adjectives but not い-adjectives. When a な-adjective comes before , the な-adjective take the dictionary form.

People often use to express thoughts that arose suddenly or surprisingly within their minds. Therefore, sentences ending with are often used when a person is speaking to themselves or when they are reacting to events or arising feelings and do not intend to have their sentence heard by anyone. Because the speaker does not have the listener in their mind, the sentences can sound blunt or plain compared to when using です.

Examples

When you just notice it's starting to rain:

  • あめだ!
  • It's raining!

Talking to yourself as you open the blinds in the morning:

  • 今日きょう天気てんきだ。
  • It's good weather today.

Forms

The table below shows the standard forms for :

Tense\PolarityAffirmativeNegative
Non-pastじゃない
Pastだったじゃなかった
では can be used with negative forms instead of じゃ: ではない and ではなかった. The sentences with では give a more formal impression than ones with じゃ, but all sentences with are less formal than ones with です.
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