The に particle part 2

Mark indirect objects, destination, and time

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Outline

KanjiVocabularyThe に particle part 2

Kanji

Meet, Party

Enter, Insert

Bright, light

Every

Buy

Vocabulary

いつ

When, How soon

プール

Pool

会う

To meet, To see

入る

To enter, To go into

明日

Tomorrow

毎日

Every day

入学

Entry to school, Enrolment, Matriculation

買う

To buy, To purchase

The に particle part 2

Recap

In lesson 17, we learned about the particle which is used to mark the location of an item as shown below:

  • アメリカに友人ゆうじんがいます。
  • I have a friend in America.
  • いえにプールがあります。
  • There is a pool at home.

As well as identifying the location of an item, the particle has a lot of other usages which we will learn about. In this lesson, we will learn three more ways to use the particle.

Indirect object

In lesson 24 we covered what objects and direct objects are, and how to mark direct objects using the particle. Now we will learn about indirect objects and how to use them with the particle.

An indirect object answers the question of "for who" or "for what". In the sentence "I will buy flowers for my mother", flowers are the direct object and my mother is the indirect object. To mark an indirect object in Japanese, put the particle immediately after. Some examples are shown below:

  • 友人ゆうじんいます。
  • I will see my friend.
  • はははないます。
  • I will buy flowers for my mother.

Destination

The particle can also be used to mark the goal of movement. In the sentence "I will go to the pool", pool is the goal of the movement and would therefore be marked with the particle. This is shown below:

  • プールにきます。
  • I will go to the pool.
  • コンビニにはいります。
  • I will go into the convenience store.

When the particle is used for this purpose, you may instead use the (pronounced as ) particle instead.

  • プールへきます。
  • I will go to the pool.
  • コンビニへはいります。
  • I will go into the convenience store.

Time

The particle can also be used to identify the time that an event takes place as shown below:

  • 三時さんじ友人ゆうじんいます。
  • I will see my friend at three o'clock.
  • 五時半ごじはんかけます
  • I will go out at five thirty.
  • 四月しがつ大学だいがく入学にゅうがくします。
  • I willenter the university in April.

There are some situations when you don't need to use the particle when identifying the time. These situations are:

  • The time expression is relative to the current moment such as today, tomorrow and yesterday
  • The time expressions occurs repetitively with a set interval such as everyday and every week
  • The word when is used

In these situations you should omit the particle. Here are some examples:

  • 明日あした友人ゆうじんいえます。
  • My friend will come to my house tomorrow.
  • 毎日まいにちはないます。
  • I buy flowers everyday
  • いつ大学だいがく入学にゅうがくしますか?
  • When do you enter the university?
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