Quotation

Quote what other people have said using direct and indirect speech forms

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Outline

KanjiVocabularyQuotation

Kanji

Word, Say

Trip, Travel

Strange, Unusual, Change

Head

Pain, Hurt, Damage

Vocabulary

今週

This week

来月

Next month

言う

To say, To declare, To name

旅行

Travel, Trip, Tour

大変

Very, Serious, Terrible, Hard

Head, Top

痛い

Painful, Sore, Cringy

Quotation

と言う

In this lesson we will learn the expression which is used to tell someone what other people have said. The first character , is a quotation particle just like the from おも that we learned previously. The verb means “to say” and it is often used together with the particle .

Direct speech

There are two usages of : direct speech and indirect speech. Direct speech is repeating exactly what someone else has said, whereas indirect speech is restating it instead. Direct speech uses quotation marks which are expressed with brackets (「」) in Japanese. Here are some examples:

  • かれは「来月らいげつ旅行りょこうきます。」といました。
  • He said, "I will go on a trip next month.".
  • ケンは「あたまいたいです。」といました。
  • Ken said, "I have a headache.".
  • 彼女かのじょは「今週こんしゅう仕事しごと大変たいへんです。」とった。
  • She said, "The work this week is hard.".

As the direct speech reproduces what someone else has said, any type of sentence such as past or non-past tense, suggestions, and requests, can come inside the quotation marks.

Indirect speech

Indirect speech is when the speaker restates what someone else has said. Indirect speech does not use quotation marks. Here are some examples:

  • かれ来月らいげつ旅行りょこうくといました。
  • He said that he would be going on a trip next month.
  • ケンはあたまいたいといました。
  • Ken said that he has a headache.
  • 彼女かのじょ今週こんしゅう仕事しごと大変たいへんだとった。
  • She said that her work this week would be hard.

In indirect speech sentences, the quoted sentence takes the plain form ending such as , いた and 大変たいへん rather than きます, いたいです and 大変たいへんです.

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