However

Connect contrasting and paradoxical statements

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Outline

KanjiVocabularyHowever

Kanji

Quick, Fast

Exertion, Diligent, Strive

Strong

Weak, Frail

Yesterday, Previous, Past

Vocabulary

乗り物

Vehicle, Transport

明後日

Day after tomorrow

速い

Fast, Quick

昨日

Yesterday

勉強

Study

強い

Strong, Tough, Skilled

弱い

Weak, Frail, Delicate

However

The grammar points でも, しかし, , けど, and けれども are used to connect contrasting and paradoxical statements, like "but" or "however" in English. The expressions can be divided into two types:

  • Ones that come at the beginning of a new sentence
  • Ones that form a sub-clause

でも/しかし

In written English, generally you should not start a sentence with "but", but in Japanese it is completely fine to do so with でも and しかし. Below are some example sentences:

  • 昨日きのう学校がっこうやすみました。でも、勉強べんきょうしました。
  • I took a day off at school yesterday. But I studied.
  • 明日あしたれです。しかし、明後日あさってあめです。
  • It will be sunny tomorrow. But it will be rainy the day after tomorrow.

While the sentences with でも and しかし can stand by themselves, しかし is more formal than でも. でも is the shorter and more casual version of それでも. The でも admits what’s been stated and makes the opposite statement.

In the first sentence, the result of taking day off school should be resting or having fun playing games, but it turned out otherwise. It is often used to add explanations or excuses to an event.

Though there are slight differences in usage, a lot of Japanese people choose which one to use by the formality level of the situation.

が/けど/けれども

Unlike the first group, , けど, and けれども have to come at the end of the sub-clause and be followed by the main clause:

  • 勉強べんきょうはするけど、宿題しゅくだいはしません。
  • I study, but don't do homework.
  • 電車でんしゃはやいけれども、たかいです。
  • Trains are fast, but expensive.
  • もの大好だいすきですけど、バスはきではありません。
  • I like vehicles very much, but I don't like busses.
  • あにつよひとですが、わたしよわいです。
  • My older brother is a strong person, but I am weak.

When using , けど, or けれども directly after a noun or な-adjective, the declaration particle has to come before the grammar points: だが, だけど, だけれども.

  • 日本にほんきだけど、日本語にほんごきではありません。
  • I like Japan, but I don't like Japanese.
  • あにつよひとだが、わたしよわいです。
  • My older brother is a strong person, but I am weak.
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